The 3M Model of Motivation and Personality: Theory and Empirical Applications to Consumer Behavior
Read Snippet : Integrating control theory, evolutionary psychology, and a hierarchical approach to personality, this book presents a new approach to motivation, personality, and consumer behavior. Called the 3M, which stands for `Meta-theoretic Model of Motivation’, this theory seeks to account for how personality traits interact with the situation to influence consumer attitudes and actions. The book proposes that multiple personality traits combine to form a motivational network that acts to influence behavior. Mowen argues that in order to understand the causes of enduring behavioral tendencies, one must identify the more abstract traits underlying surface behaviors. In constructing the 3M model, the author reports data from fifteen empirical studies employing over 3500 respondents. In this hierarchical model, four types of personality traits are identified: elemental, compound, situational, and surface traits. Eight elemental traits are proposed as forming the underlying dimensions of personality. Consistent with control theory, the research reveals that the elemental traits combine to form compound traits, such as self-efficacy, task orientation, playfulness, and competitiveness. These elemental and compound traits combine with situational influences to cause enduring behavioral tendencies within general situational contexts. Examples of situational traits investigated include impulsive buying, value consciousness, sports interest, and health motivation. In the 3M model the elemental, compound, and situational traits combine to yield surface traits, which are enduring dispositions to act in specific behavioral contexts. Five surface traits are empirically investigated in the book: compulsive buying, sports participation, healthy diet lifestyles, proneness to bargaining, and a tendency to frugality. Across these five studies, the empirical results reveal that the 3M model accounts for over 44% of the variance in the surface trait measures. By presenting a new meta-theory of motivation and personality that is testable, Mowen’s 3M model accounts for high levels of variance in consumer behavior. By integrating the work of selected past and current theorists into a comprehensible whole, the 3M model provides coherence in a field currently dominated by conflicting ideas, theories, and approaches. The book provides evidence that by understanding the individual dispositions that underlie consumer behavior, public policy officials and marketing specialists can develop better communication programs to influence and persuade their target audiences. The book shows how to employ the 3M model to segment the marketplace, provide psychographic inventories, position brands, create promotional themes, and develop brand personalities.
On the provision facet, many industries are seeing the introduction of latest technologies that create completely new methods of serving present needs and significantly disrupt current trade value chains. Disruption can also be flowing from agile, progressive competitors who, due to access to global digital platforms for research, growth, advertising, gross sales, and distribution, can oust nicely-established incumbents sooner than ever by enhancing the standard, pace, or worth at which worth is delivered.
One of many first issues I’ve is parking. Many older industrial buildings were legally constructed with a parking ratio of “two to at least one.” This implies that there have been two parking spaces allocated for every 1,000 sq. feet of constructing space. This may be woefully insufficient for any sort of office use, and would not meet any trendy building code for office use. An office building is usually required to have a parking ratio of five to 1, and generally more. So in most jurisdictions, a 10,000 square foot workplace constructing would want at the very least 50 parking spaces. So the office conversion candidate in all probability wants an oversize plot, or an adjoining plot that may be acquired. Or, the economics may actually justify demolishing part of the present structure to create extra parking.
On the whole, there are four major effects that the Fourth Industrial Revolution has on businessâon buyer expectations, on product enhancement, on collaborative innovation, and on organizational kinds. Whether customers or businesses, customers are increasingly at the epicenter of the financial system, which is all about enhancing how clients are served. Bodily services, moreover, can now be enhanced with digital capabilities that enhance their value. New applied sciences make belongings more durable and resilient, while data and analytics are reworking how they are maintained. A world of customer experiences, knowledge-primarily based providers, and asset efficiency through analytics, meanwhile, requires new types of collaboration, notably given the speed at which innovation and disruption are happening. And the emergence of worldwide platforms and different new enterprise fashions, lastly, signifies that expertise, culture, and organizational varieties should be rethought.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution, lastly, will change not solely what we do but additionally who we are. It should have an effect on our identification and all the issues related to it: our sense of privacy, our notions of possession, our consumption patterns, the time we dedicate to work and leisure, and the way we develop our careers, cultivate our expertise, meet individuals, and nurture relationships. It’s already altering our health and resulting in a quantifiedâ self, and before we predict it could lead to human augmentation. The list is countless because it’s certain only by our imagination.